Antibiotics are drugs used to treat bacterial infections. They will not help you if you have viral infections (e.g. flu). There are many different classes of antibiotics, but most important are Penicillins (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Amoxicillin/Clavulanate), Cephalosporins (Cephalexin, Cefaclor, Cefepim, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Cefuroxime, etc.), Tetracyclines (Doxycycline and Tetracycline), Macrolides (Erythromycin, Azithromycin and Clarithromycin), Lincosamides (Clindamycin), and Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin, Amikacin, Kanamycin, Neomycin and Tobramycin). Antibiotics can act in two ways: bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Bactericidal antibiotics most often interfere with bacterial cell-wall synthesis, thus kill bacteria. Bacteriostatic antibiotics only stop further bacterial reproduction, but they don't kill bacteria, so they prevent spread of infection. It is very important that you use antibiotics exactly how your doctor recommended, because shortening duration of its course may cause antibiotic resistance. That means that antibiotics will not kill all bacteria, and those that remain alive will develop resistance against the antibiotic. Therefore, next time you take that antibiotics, the bacteria will know how to fight against it, and antibiotic will not be effective in treating the infection. You should therefore always listen to your doctor's recommendation when it comes to the antibiotic usage.
Depression is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, and antidepressants are consequently the third most commonly used drugs across the world. Most popular antidepressants are selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants.
They are most often used to treat severe depression but are also useful for milder forms. Antidepressants are not psychostimulants but they relieve or eliminate symptoms of depression and help people suffering from depression to feel in the way they felt before they became depressed.
Doctors determine which antidepressant will be used based on individual symptoms. Some improvement may occur during the first few weeks; but usually the antidepressant must be taken regularly for more than 6 months, in some cases up to 8 weeks in order to get a full therapeutic effect. If there is no change or improvement in the symptoms after 6 to 8 weeks, the doctor may prescribe you additional drug, for example, Lithium to improve the initial antidepressant therapy. The therapy with antidepressants is usually long-term.
Antifungals are the medicines used to treat fungal (yeast) infections. They can be divided into following two categories:
Azoles are synthetic antifungal drugs with a wide range of effects. The most important drugs belonging to this class of medicine are: Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Fluconazole, and Myconazole. Azoles inhibit the fungal enzyme called cytochrome P450 3A, lanosin 14 alpha-demethylase, which is responsible for the conversion of lanosterol into ergosterol, the main sterol in the cell membrane of fungi. The ultimate effect is the inhibition of fungal replication. Azoles also inhibit the binding of fungi into the hype-invasive and pathogenic form of the parasite.
Antiparasitics are drugs that are clinically beneficial for treating one's pathological conditions caused by varied parasites, such as protozoa, ectoparasites, helminths and amoeba. They are used for the treatment of intestinal, as well as for tissue related systemic infections caused by parasites.
Structurally different antiparasitics act in a very different mechanisms including inhibition of biosynthesis of folic acid, inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain, inhibition of biosynthesis of protein, RNA, DNA, and other mechanisms. All of these mechanism kill or inhibit growth and reproduction of parasites. Most commonly used antiparasitics include Ivermectin (Ivomec, Mectizan), Pyrantel (Helmex, Trilombrin) and Albendazole (Albenza).
Antihistamines are drugs used for the treatment of allergy conditions, as well as for the treatment of digestive disorders. There are two different class of antihistamines:
When your body comes into contact with any of the allergens (triggers), such as pollen, ambrosia, pet hair, or mites - this leads to a secretion of a chemical called histamine. Histamine causes the tissue in the nose to swell (which leads to nasal congestion), the nose starts to leak, eyes produce too many tears, and your mouth and throat may swell. Sometimes you can also get a rash on the skin that is itching.
Psychosis cover the entire range of the diseases, but the term antipsychotics, as well as neuroleptics and anxiolytics usually refers to drugs used in the treatment of schizophrenia and anxiety. These are one of the most significant psychiatric disorders because they occur in young people, often have a chronic character and significantly disables the person. Antipsychotics can also treat some severe forms of depression and manic-depressive psychosis.
From pharmacological perspective, antipsychotics are dopamine receptor antagonists, although many drugs in this group also work on other receptors, especially 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and other receptors.
Anxiolytics are drugs that are used to alleviate mild to moderate anxiety. In addition, they are often used to alleviate stress, tension, and similar symptoms.
Anxiolytics usually cause following effects: sedation, elimination of fears, tension, and stress feeling. In addition, anxiolytics act as central muscle relaxants and sometimes as antihypertensive agents.
The most important classes of anxiolytics include:
Sometimes barbiturates are used as anxiolytics. However, due to very frequent overdoses resulting in fatal outcomes, barbiturates have been out of use as anxiolytics and are now used only as anti-epileptics.
Bronchodilators relax the muscles of bronchi and lung blood vessels by blocking certain chemical substances in the body. Some of these medications also relieve breathing because they act as central respiratory stimulators. This reduces bronchospasms, increases the lung capacity, and improves the symptoms of bronchial asthma and bronchitis.
Bronchodilators may also affect the sinuses and upper respiratory tract. All of these medicines can affect the heart, arteries and veins, especially if they are taken in high doses. Therefore, bronchodilators can increase blood pressure and heartbeat. Most commonly used bronchodilators are theophylline and aminophylline. They can cause adverse effects in people with high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, epileptic seizures, peptic ulcer, thyroid disorders, or prostate problems.
Cancer is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Annually, 15 million new cancer patients are detected, of which 9 million have a fatal outcome. The main causes of cancer include poor nutrition, smoking, viral infections, gene mutations, alcohol, and ultraviolet radiation.
Three things must happen in order for malignant tumor to be developed:
Prognosis of cancer depends on a type and stage when it is diagnosed.
Cholesterol is one of the forms in which lipids (fats) occur. Cholesterol is very widespread in all cells of the body, especially in the nervous tissue. It occurs in animal fats, but not in herbal ones. Cholesterol is, among other things, needed to build cell membranes and produce several basic hormones (such as adrenaline, estrogen, and testosterone).
It has been found that about two thirds of cholesterol is produced by synthesis in the body (in an adult about 800-900mg per day), and only one third comes from food. Given the ability of an organism to produce it in large quantities, it is enough to eat about 150-300mg daily. Children need a proportionally larger amount because cholesterol plays an important role as the structural element of all cellular membranes.
Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world. If it is not diagnosed on time, it can lead to systemic complications. It mostly occurs due to a complete or partial lack of insulin or insulin resistance.
Insulin is the hormone secreted by pancreas, and its role is to reduce blood glucose levels. Any insufficiency of insulin leads to an increased concentration of blood sugar (hyperglycemia), which lead to following symptoms: glycosuria (excretion of sugar by urine), polyphagia (excessive hunger) polydipsia (excessive thirst), and polyuria (frequent urination).
Polyphagia, polydipsia and polyuria is an important triage of symptoms that you must immediately inform your doctor about. There are three types of diabetes:
The most important risk factors for diabetes are:
Diabetes leads to damage to the blood vessels, thus leading to heart damage, development of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Diabetes may also cause diabetic retinopathy (causing blindness), nephropathy (damage to the nerves) and damage to the peripheral blood vessels that lead to feelings of burning and tingling (so-called paresthesia).
The gastrointestinal tract or digestive system consists of a number of heterogeneous organs that complement each other in their common role of digestion. The whole digestion system can be roughly divided by its role on the mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and colon. Other important organs or parts of this system are salivary glands, gallbladder and pancreas. Gastrointestinal system is very complex, and it even has its own nervous system called enteric nervous system.
Its role is not only in digesting the food. Gastro Health is very important for overall health and wellbeing. It is scientifically proved that intestinal flora directly improves immune system of individuals, especially in babies.
The skin is the largest human organ. It has an essential role thus it is necessary to be healthy. Its basic roles are:
For the normal functioning of the skin, it is necessary to drink sufficient amounts of liquids, especially water because the hydration is significant for its function.
Skin and hair are every day exposed to various external factors. Wind, rain, snow, sun, but also genetics, diet and lifestyle can accelerate the aging of the skin or cause changes in it. Appropriate skin and hair care is extremely important, because it is the only way to preserve the overall health, slow down aging, and keep the skin tight and beautiful.
Hypertension is a condition in which blood pressure is higher than 140/90 mmHg. The first value (140 mmHg) represents systolic blood pressure, which is the blood pressure on the blood vessel walls that occurs during the squeezing of the heart chamber, while the second value (90 mmHg) is the diastolic pressure, i.e. the pressure between the contractions of the heart when the wall of the artery is relaxed. It is difficult to define what level of blood pressure is pathological. The blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg is considered normal, BP of 120-140 / 80-90 mmHg is called prehypertension (people with this kind of pressure have a high risk of hypertension) and blood pressure more than 140/90 mmHg is considered hypertension. People with hypertension have high risk of atherosclerosis, heart attack and stroke. Therefore, the hypertension is a condition that must be treated.
According to the definition of the European Urological Association (EAU), erectile dysfunction (ED) in men represents a permanent inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient to provide satisfactory sexual intercourse.
ED can be minimal, moderate or severe. Most authors agree that the man gets positive diagnosis of ED if this condition lasts for at least three months. Nowadays, the number of patients requiring treatment of ED is increasing worldwide. Recent studies have shown that in the male population of the age group 30 to 80 years, the frequency of ED is up to 20%. Erection is a complex psychophysical process, which includes psychological, hormonal and vascular processes. Erection can be psychogenic and reflexogenic.
Prostate health is extremely important for every man. Prostate plays a very important role in reproductive men - participates in the creation of certain components of semen and plays a very important role in the process of urination. It weighs about 20 grams, and it is located in a small pelvis. Every man should start with appropriate prostate care at a young age, by applying healthy lifestyle. Man should be moderate in the consumption of alcohol, because it can lead to inflammation of the prostate. In addition to alcohol, smoking and excessive coffee intake can also negatively affect prostate health. High-fat food should also be avoided.
Many people would like to be smarter. Although IQ is mostly genetically predetermined, there are no much information about substances that can improve learning ability, concentration, memory, and creativity. These substances are called nootropics. According to the survey conducted in UK, 25% of students use nootropics. Also, many programmers from Silicon Valley are taking one or more nootropics. Nootropics:
Most popular nootropics are Modafinil (Modalert) and Armodafinil (Waklert). They are great when you have many tasks that you should complete in short time.
Many people try to ease their problems by taking alcohol because they consider this as a quick way of solving problems, but in the long term, alcohol can lead to serious health and social problems with serious health consequences.
Nicotine (ingredient of cigarettes that causes addiction) has been proved to be very toxic to our bodies. However, since it causes addiction, many people smoke despite the fact they are aware of nicotine toxicity.
Many try to quit smoking or alcohol, but it's hard to do this if you are not taking any products. Therefore, use of smoking/alcohol cessation aids is highly recommended.
Viruses are intracellular parasites. Their replication primarily depends on the synthetic processes in the host cell. Antivirals are drugs used to treat infections caused by viruses.
Most of antivirals generally act in a way to block the synthesis of viral DNA or RNA by inhibition of certain enzymes, while others block some other important steps in the lifecycle of the virus. It is important to emphasize that not each virus can be treated with drugs. Currently, antivirals are available only for few viruses, while for some other viruses, vaccines or immunoglobulins can be used.
It is important to note that antibiotics are not effective in the treatment of viral infections.
Bisphosphonates are drugs that hinder the activity of osteoclasts and thereby block bone breakdown. As the dynamics of bone mineralization is determined by the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, blocking osteoclast activity is the mechanism through which bisphosphonates prevent bone degradation.
From chemical perspective, bisphosphonates are organic derivatives of phosphoric acid containing two phosphate groups bound to the same carbon atom. Due to such a chemical structure, these compounds are accumulated in bone tissue. They are used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, Paget's bone disease, bone cancer metastases, multiple myeloma, and for stimulating bone healing after fractures.
Most important bisphosphonates include Etidronate, Clodronate, Pamidronate, Neridronate, Olpadronate, Alendronate, Ibandronate, Risedronate, and Zoledronate.
Diuretics are drugs used for stimulating or enhancing fluid urination. Diuretics reduce edema and volume of body fluid, thereby contributing to reduction of blood pressure. Diuretics are used to treat hypertension and heart failure.
Excretion of larger quantities of water and minerals (Na, K, Ca) reduces the volume of liquid in the blood vessels, as well as in the whole body, and causes the dilation of blood vessels.
Diuretics are divided in three categories:
The eye care should be part of everyday routine, but very often this essential and sensitive part is not being taken care of with importance that is needed. Due to the fact that skin around the eyes is extremely thin, wrinkles first appear there. In order to avoid wrinkles and other irregularities in this area, cosmetic treatments should be started on time. Eye cream should contain specific ingredients that are adapted to this area. For best effects, cosmetic products containing retinol, caffeine, peptides and hydrating components should be used. Due to the high sensitivity of the skin around the eyes, precaution should be taken when applying creams and other cosmetic preparations.
Gout is defined as an inflammation of the joints and soft tissues. It's one of the oldest diseases. Hippocrates wrote that gout is a disease that affects only rich people. Since then, gout has been known as the disease of "kings and rich people".
Increased levels of uric acid in the joints cause gout. It occurs in people who have high uric acid in the blood. When levels of uric acid increases at such extent that excess levels cannot be excreted through the urine, uric acid start to precipitate on the wrist and create inflammation. These uric acid crystals can also precipitate in kidneys. Gout usually develop in men above the age of 40, while the number of women suffering from gout is significantly lower.
Hormones are chemicals secreted by glands and they help other organs perform a function or prevent certain functions. There are many glands in our body that have a significant function. They are divided into glands of external and glands of internal secretion. The glands of external secretion secrete their hormones out of the body. Such are, for example, salivary and sweat glands. Glands of internal secretion secrete their hormones directly into the blood and affect many systemic processes in the body.
Appropriate hormone balance in the body is extremely important to individual's health. Unfortunately, glands sometimes secrete too much or too little hormones, thus leading to disorders.
Immunity represents the ability of an organism to resist the action of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) and prevents the onset of a disease. The immune system recognizes everything that is strange to our body and all these substances (pollen, food, medicine) are called antigens.
The immune system fights against these antigens with its army of antibodies:
Immunity may be non-specific and specific.
Immunity can be natural and artificial and is acquired in an active or passive way:
Muscle relaxers block neuromuscular presynaptic or postsynaptic transmission (by inhibiting synthesis of acetylcholine or its release). Most of clinically significant muscle relaxers work on postsynaptic level, except of botulinum toxin. Muscle Relaxers are most commonly used as an adjunct to anesthesia in surgery, in situations where mechanical ventilation is available.
Muscle Relaxers are also used to treat muscle spasms or in patients who experience increased muscle tension. They are also useful in the treatment of muscle pain, stiffness and trauma.
The most important drugs belonging to this group are Pancuronium, Vecuronium, and Rocuronium. All muscle relaxers have quaternary structure, which means they are poorly absorbed and quickly excreted.
Parkinson's disease is a disease characterized by movement disorders, named after a doctor from London James Parkinson, who in 1817 was first to describe the symptoms of the disease. Movement disorders is caused by reduction of the secretion of the chemical substance called dopamine, in the part of the brain that plays an important role in controlling the volitional movements (basal ganglia).
Unfortunately, the cause of the degradation of basal ganglia is not yet fully known. Characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease are shaking of hands, stiffness of the muscles in the arm, legs and neck, as well as slow movements.
Obesity is a serious risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, which can lead to stroke and heart attack.
Treating obesity in a timely manner (medically or through hypocaloric diet) may help prevent complications and provides individuals with a long-lasting and healthier lives. Unfortunately, it is estimated that every fifth person in the USA is obese.
Lower body weight than normal (malnutrition) or significantly higher than normal (obesity) have different ways of affecting the general health. If you have to choose between these, then it's better to be thinner than obese, but it's however best to have normal body weight. Normal body weight is the one that is appropriate with one's height and age.
Urology is a branch of medicine dealing with urinary tract disorders (kidneys, bladder and urethra), as well as man's genital organs (penis, testicles and prostate).
The most common urology disorders include urinary tract infections, kidney stones, prostate diseases, as well as malignant diseases.
Timely and accurate diagnosis will ease treating and preventing serious consequences and complications of benign diseases (infection, kidney stones, benign prostate enlargement, etc.) and malignant diseases, which, if detected in the early stages, are usually curable.
Older men mostly experience problems with prostate and bladder (uncontrolled and excessive urination at night), while younger men experience problems with testicles. It is extremely important to notify your urologist if you experience any unusual symptoms.
It is well known that the onset of pain is a very complex process, which is why the treatment of pain is very complex. Treatment of pain usually involve the so-called "multidisciplinary" approach, which means that co-operation of many healthcare specialists is necessary in order to achieve appropriate results, and to improve quality of patient's life.
Pain can be mild, moderate or severe in intensity. Mild and moderate pain is usually treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) while the severe pain must be treated with opioid drugs. Drugs used to treat pain are called analgesics. Since pain can cause complications, it must be treated in a timely manner.
Climacterium is a transitional period and is characterized with gradual extinguishing of the ovary function. It is a period which means a transition from a period when a woman was reproductively capable to a period when it is no longer reproductively capable.
Climacterium is mostly caused by aging. Other causes are not yet known. It is however known that ovarian function can be affected by smoking, some drugs, radiation and surgery. During the reproductive period, women have around 400 to 450 ovulation. Over time, the ovarian function become to decline and they stop producing eggs.
Climacterium usually occurs between age of 45-50. Cases of early climacterium (before 40) have been reported but it happens very rare.
Safe sex is the best sex! Fortunately, today there are many contraceptive devices that not only protect from pregnancy, but also favorably affect the health of women. The only device that protects against sexually transmitted diseases is still a condom.
The ideal contraceptive must be effective, harmless, inexpensive, easy to use and not to disturb the very act of sexual intercourse.
The choice of a contraceptive is individual and depends on age, health, lifestyle and frequency of sexual intercourse. Both partners should participate in the choice, and the best decision should be made after consultation with a gynecologist.
Estrogen, progesterone, cortisol and list goes on. You've probably heard for these hormones, but also, there is a high chance that you are not quite sure of what's their role in the body.
Hormonal imbalance is a situation that almost every woman deals with in certain period of life, and to get back to normal hormones level can be a very difficult task.
The most common reasons for reporting to doctor are irregular menstrual periods or absence of menstrual periods for more than two or three months. However, it is recommended that even healthy, young women should run hormonal tests three to six times in two years. Women dealing with menopause need to perform appropriate hormonal tests before starting any therapy. Metabolic changes, characterized by weight gain or weight loss, can indicate changes in hormone levels.